The agreement has been burdensome for Russia, who loses more than sixty million inhabitants, 25% of the territory of the Tsarist Empire and more than half of its industrial potential, but Lenin, determined to grant all the priority to the revolution, considers it A “heroic retreat ‘, although before the congress of the Soviets did not hide its dark side:” Yes, this peace is an unprecedented humiliation for Soviet power, but we are not in a position to force history.’ It was not necessary to wait for the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk so that Russia’s political events reach great repercussion between the Western European population, increasingly tired
of war and less hopes in victory. The example of the Bolsheviks promoted demonstrations in the main Western capitals and gave the protest of the socialists, very critical towards their governments. The “sacred joints”, which had been able to survive the Conferences of the II International in 1915-1916, are now deeply affected by the pacifist surge and in all contending countries, demoralization begins. The 196th campaign had been disastrous for the latter, especially for human losses: on the western front they had been superior to those of Germany and in the East more than two and a half million soldiers had died. The German population, also affected by the carnage from the front, suffered as never the lack of food and coal, vital in that particularly cold winter, but entirely employed in the war industry. For his part, at the end of 1916, military managers of both sides had decided to implement a new offensive strategy, once the failure of the “War of Wear” has been demonstrated. The allies planned a joint attack on the western front, which would take place as long as the winter time allowed and Germany renounced the war on land, in which he distrusted, and decreased by recruiting the underwater war. At the beginning 1917, Germany put its plan into practice, announcing that all merchant, neutral or not, who sail through the French and British coasts, by the Mediterranean or by the Arctic were exposed to being destroyed. The new German tactic caused the United States intervention. 1917 It was a full year full of spectacular news. The reasons that prompted the United States to abandon the “strict neutrality” announced by Wilson appealing to the American people on August 19, 1914 have been valued in a different way by historians, although there is agreement in considering as immediate detonating the underwater war and the “Zimmermann Telegram”. Until 1917, Wilson formally kept neutrality, despite the personal inclination of him towards the powers of the Ententee, an attitude in which he coincided with the majority of the American people. As in all neutral countries, in the United States it existed since the beginning of the division of opinions, perhaps more accentuated than in other places given the varied European origin of its population, but sympathy towards the Entente prevailed due to cultural unit With the United Kingdom and general admiration towards France, whose help to the American independence cause remained alive.